Have you heard of the term"tweenager"? It"s a new word being ___1____( use) in the UK to describe children at about 10-12 years old. Why are the media suddenly referring to kids in this way?
Well, more and more companies are _____2____ (begin )to create products and services for tweenagers, The Disney company sells the Hannah Montana television show, music, films and products to tweenagers and their parents. You can get everything from ___3____ (brand) lunch boxes and cellphones to fan magazines and clothing. The High School ____4____ (music)series of films is also intended for the tweenage audience. So, it"s all about sales, which ___5____(tell) us tweenagers must have more money, ___6___ (free) and influence upon their parents than they have ever had before.
Most children in the UK today get ___7____(much) pocket money than the kids did a decade ago. In spite of the credit trouble, parents have more money to give than ____8____(previous), since parents are having fewer children on average than in the past. In addition, divorce rate in the UK is continually rising and the parents spend __9___(little)time with their children than they used to. So, many parents are under constant pressure from commercial____10____ (market) and the requests of their children.
2、Searching for Smiles
Ask most people anywhere in the world what they want out of life and the reply will probably be："to be happy. "Ed Deiner, an American psychology professor, has spent his whole professional life studying what makes people happy, comparing levels of happiness between cultures and trying to find out exactly why we enjoy ourselves.
Many people would say that this question does not need an answer. But Professor Deiner has one anyway. "If you’re a cheerful, happy person, your marriage is more likely to last, and you’re more likely to make money and be successful at your job. On average, happy people have stronger immune systems, and there is some evidence that they live longer."
So who are the world s happiest people? It depends on how the word is defined. There is individual happiness, the sense of joy we get when we do something we like. But there is also the feeling of satisfaction we get when we know that others respect us and approve of how we behave. According to Professor Deiner, the Western world pursues individual happiness while Asia prefers mutual satisfaction.
“In the West, the individualistic culture means that your mood matters much more than it does in the East. People ask themselves, what can I do that’s fun or interesting? They become unhappy when they cant do any of these things. If you ask people from Japan or China if they are happy, they tend to look at what has gone wrong in their lives. If not much has gone wrong, then they are satisfied.”
People from Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries had the happiest culture, Professor Deiner found. “The biggest cultural difference is to do with pride and shame. Hispanic cultures report much more pride and much less shame than others.”
Income also made a big difference to people's happiness, but only at the lowest levels.
Average income earners in the US were much happier than people in poverty. But millionaires were only a little bit happier than people on average incomes. It seems that money makes us happy when we have enough to feel secure.
But can we be too happy? "You get people who are actually happy, but they think happiness is so important that they try to be even happier. This desire to be always happy is a product of individualism, where the emphasis is on you individually, your emotions and feeling good. People can end up feeling unhappy because ordinary happiness is not good enough for them."
B.Ed Deiner"s Research
C.Definition of Happiness
D.Cultural Differences in Happiness
E.Reasons to Be Happy
F.Individual and Ordinary Happiness